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Use of Cognitive Apprenticeship Framework in Online Learning

Use of Cognitive Apprenticeship Framework in Online Learning
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Author(s): Tina Parscal (Colorado State University-Global Campus, USA)
Copyright: 2009
Pages: 7
Source title: Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, Second Edition
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Patricia L. Rogers (Bemidji State University, USA), Gary A. Berg (California State University Channel Islands (Retired), USA), Judith V. Boettcher (Designing for Learning, USA), Caroline Howard (HC Consulting, USA), Lorraine Justice (Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong) and Karen D. Schenk (K. D. Schenk and Associates Consulting, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-198-8.ch326


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Cognitive apprenticeship (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989) is an instructional framework that uses the underlying principles of traditional apprenticeship learning. The cognitive apprenticeship framework consists of the dimension of content, methods, sequence, and sociology. It focuses specifically on instructional modeling, coaching, and scaffolding. Through modeling, learners see expert facilitation techniques in a realistic setting. According to Schulte, Magenheim, Niere, and Schafer (2003), “the key issue is to make the problem solving process and the expert’s thinking visible to the learner” (p. 271). During coaching, learners receive guidance while they attempt to execute tasks and demonstrate skills. Scaffolding, the process of supporting learners while they acquire new skills, is provided and faded as learners begin to demonstrate mastery of these new skills. These techniques are employed in situated learning environments. Further, cognitive apprenticeship sets out to (a) identify an expert’s problem solving and critical thinking processes and make them visible to learners, (b) situate abstract task in authentic contexts, and (c) vary the diversity of situations in which problem solving may occur and articulate the common aspects in order to increase the potential for learning transfer (Collins, Brown and Newman, 1989).

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