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History of Artificial Intelligence

History of Artificial Intelligence
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Author(s): Attila Benko (University of Pannonia, Hungary) and Cecília Sik Lányi (University of Pannonia, Hungary)
Copyright: 2009
Pages: 4
Source title: Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Second Edition
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, D.B.A. (Information Resources Management Association, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-026-4.ch276


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George Boole was the first to describe a formal language for logic reasoning in 1847. The next milestone in artificial intelligence history was in 1936, when Alan M. Turing described the Turing-machine. Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts created the model of artificial neurons in 1943, and it was in 1944 when J. Neumann and O. Morgenstern determined the theory of decision, which provided a complete and formal frame for specifying the preferences of agents. In 1949 Donald Hebb presented a value changing rule for the connections of the artificial neurons that provide the chance of learning, and Marvin Minsky and Dean Edmonds created the first neural computer in 1951. Artificial intelligence (AI) was born in the summer of 1956, when John McCarthy first defined the term. It was the first time the subject caught the attention of researchers, and it was discussed at a conference at Dartmouth. The next year, the first general problem solver was tested, and one year later, McCarty?regarded as the father of AI?announced the LISP language for creating AI software. Lisp, which stands for list processing, is still used regularly today. Herbert Simon in 1965 stated: “Machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do.” However, years later scientists realized that creating an algorithm that can do anything a human can do is nearly impossible. Nowadays, AI has a new meaning: creating intelligent agents to help us do our work faster and easier (Russel & Norvig, 2005; McDaniel, 1994; Shirai & Tsujii, 1982; Mitchell, 1996; Schreiber, 1999). Perceptrons was a demonstration of the limits of simple neural networks published by Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert in 1968. In 1970, the first International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence was held in Washington, DC. PROLOG, a new language for generating AI systems, was created by Alain Colmerauer in 1972. In 1983, Johnson Laird, Paul Rosenbloom, and Allen Newell completed CMU dissertations on SOAR.

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