Creator of Knowledge
Information Resources Management Association
Advancing the Concepts & Practices of Information Resources Management in Modern Organizations

Geographic Information Systems

Geographic Information Systems
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Author(s): Paula Cristina Remoaldo (University of Minho, Portugal), Vitor P. Ribeiro (University of Minho, Portugal), Hélder Silva Lopes (University of Minho, Portugal)and Sara Catarina Gomes Silva (University of Minho, Portugal)
Copyright: 2018
Pages: 13
Source title: Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition
Source Author(s)/Editor(s): Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, D.B.A. (Information Resources Management Association, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch301


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The emergence of technological systems with computerized cartographic application allowed the resolution of certain military problems between the 50s and 60s the XX century. The first GIS was created in Canada Geographic Information Systems in 1964 for Tomlinson. At this time GIS was in a consolidation phase in multiple areas and for various purposes. The geographical science growth with the development of GIS were in connection to the subject of the new geography, justified by the application of the methods of quantitative analysis in various spatial nature of research. In this context the GIS feature a number of operational advantages and have allowed the proliferation of new fields of endeavor, in open access systems across multiple forms of acquisition, management, interpretation and spatial information analysis. The main goal of this paper is to underwrite the concept of GIS, as well as distinguish the diversity of applications from the past until the present, and to identify new paths to accommodate recent scientific approaches with extensive range of application possibilities.

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